Home / PART 3: The truth behind the Fall of the Ottoman Empire / 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire

8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire

Many people claim that Israel and the Jewish state caused the Empire to lose its lands in the Middle East. The truth is, such rhetoric is nothing but a diversion created by the British deep state. A quick look at the post-Ottoman era will reveal who profited the most out of the situation. It is the British deep state, and just like in the past, it is still taking advantage of the current fragmentation in the Middle East. Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Palestine, Iraq, Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Jordan came under the direct control of Britain. Though being under the rule of France, Lebanon, Syria, Libya and Algeria were indirectly under Britain’s sway. Yet, out of millions of square kilometers, the Jews got only 14,000 km2 where 800,000 people lived. That was smaller than the total area of Kuwait, and a little bigger than Qatar. After the three big Arab-Israeli wars, this territory increased to 20,000 km2, however is still smaller than the city of Ankara. Clearly, it was only the British deep state that was behind the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.

The Arab Peninsula, Iraq, Syria and the Gulf regions, which the British deep state captured in WWI in a bid to obtain the remaining riches of the Ottoman Empire, are home to half of the world’s oil reserves. For this reason, by the end of the 19th century, Britain’s appetite for the Middle East had only increased.

idd 279 OsmanliTablo IspanyaYunanalilarinIsyani 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
A painting that depicts Greeks’ revolt against the Ottomans. (1820)

Indeed, after the British deep state secured control of this region, it exploited the riches of the indigenous Muslims for years. Even after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, it got the lion’s share of the oil in countries like Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and United Arab Emirates.

The developments of the time should be a lesson for the Muslims of the 21st century and help them to better understand the developments of the modern day. Those who consider their own brothers and sisters in religion as enemies because of sectarian provocations should look at what happened a hundred years ago and see the plot. They should know that with this attitude, albeit unknowingly, they are only helping projects developed in Chatham House and the Privy Council in London. The Islamic world has been suffering from these projects for a century, and only Muslims can prevent these dark plans from coming to fruition.

Today Lebanon, Iraq, Syria and Yemen are grappling with civil wars. Sectarian clashes continue to claim Muslim lives every day. The British deep state and the Sykes-Picot Agreement, secretly implemented over time, brought only destruction and death. The only way to bring back peace is identifying the dajjali system in action. Unless the British deep state is spiritually and intellectually defeated, peace and prosperity will be impossible for the Middle East.

Therefore, the goal should be correctly identifying the dajjali ideology of the British deep state and offering a proper intellectual response, all the while knowing that God will give victory to the supporters of the Mahdi movement.

Or do those who do bad actions imagine they can outstrip Us? How bad their judgment is? (Qur’an, 29:4)

Provocation Policy of the British Deep State

When the British deep state decided to dismember the Ottoman Empire, its first step was inciting regional riots. Its spies and minions as mentioned in the previous chapter played important roles in these riots. One shouldn’t think that minorities living under Ottoman rule actually participated in these risings. On the contrary, those riots were organized by hypocrites and sycophants in various ethnical groups who chose to betray their country for petty personal gains.

By the end of the 19th century, the British deep state managed to tear Serbia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Romania, Bulgaria, and Montenegro from the Ottoman Empire, and then Macedonia, Salonica (modern Thessaloniki) and Manastır (modern Bitola) in the early 20th century. The same ‘minority’ provocation was once again active, the same provocative British spies were once again on the scene, and nations that had harmoniously co-existed for 600 years under Ottoman rule were presented as people opposed to the Ottoman Empire. By means of their spies and mercenaries, they created civil unrest and riots in these regions. During this time, close to 5 million Balkan Muslims were martyred, while another 5 million were forced to flee to Anatolia. The British deep state carried out a wide-scaled massacre.

Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Romania, which declared independence with the help of the British deep state, couldn’t escape becoming puppets. Despite having lived in peace for centuries in the Ottoman Empire, these nations, on behalf of the British deep state, attacked the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Wars. Similarly, Greece occupied Anatolia prior to the War of Independence.

idd en 305 EskiIstanbul 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
A serene scene from the Ottoman Empire when there were no riots.

The riots that had the most deadly effect on the Empire were the Arab riots. Directly instigated by British spy Lawrence, these riots achieved their goal due to the support of anglophile sycophants.

Armenian riots, another factor that contributed to the fall of the Empire, will be examined in further detail in the next part of the book.

British deep state policy is based on pitting nations against nations. Within a matter of one hundred years, Balkan nations fought the Ottoman Empire, the Armenians fought the Turks, the Kurds fought the Armenians, the Arabs fought each other and the Turks, the Caucasians fought each other and the Armenians. The British units that attacked the Ottoman Empire consisted of provoked colonized nations. During this process, the British deep state never directly took part, instead used its spies, propaganda tools and the media outlets and provoked poor people.

While Darwinism and moral corruption were eroding the moral values of the Ottoman society, debts were crippling its economy and the hypocrites were working on destroying the patriotic consciousness. This loss took a disastrous toll not only on the Ottoman Empire, but on the nations mentioned as well. From that point on, these regions were ensnared by the British deep state and were turned into pawns, and civil unrest still continues.

The Greek Uprising and Lord Byron

idd 283 YunanAyaklanmasi LordByron 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
The homosexual British poet Lord Byron took it
upon himself to lead the Greek troops during the Greek

During the Greek uprising, the Ottoman army fought not only the Greek troops, but the British deep state, too. Strangely enough, British homosexual poet Lord Byron fought alongside the Greeks, almost more enthusiastically than they did. He even set up a mercenary unit called the ‘Byron Brigade’, and died heading it. He also persuaded Ali Pasha of Ioannina, with whom he had a homosexual relationship, to start an insurgency against the Ottoman Empire, forcing the Ottoman army to fight on two fronts at the same time.

The Ottoman army was about to suppress the Greek insurgency, but under the leadership of the British deep state, the British, French and Russian navies attacked the Ottoman navy in Navarino and sank more than 70 vessels of the Ottoman and Egyptian fleets. (The British deep state’s role in the Navarino attack will be explained further in the following pages.) However, even the destruction of the Ottoman and Egyptian fleets wasn’t enough to secure a Greek victory. The Greek state couldn’t be established until after the Russo-Turkish War (1828-29). All these developments took place through careful manipulation by and under the watchful eyes of the British deep state. In the end, the Greeks gained independence through the help of the deep state.

Greek commander Kolokotronis wrote in his memoir how they martyred 32,000 Turks in the city of Tripolitsa. British historian Walter Alison Phillip said the following about the massacre:

For three days the miserable [Turkish] inhabitants were given over to lust and cruelty of a mob of savages. Neither sex nor age was spared. Women and children were tortured before being put to death. So great was the slaughter that [Greek guerilla leader] Kolokotronis himself says that, from the gate to the citadel his horse’s hoofs never touched the ground. His path of triumph was carpeted with corpses. At the end of two days, the wretched remnant of the Mussulmans were deliberately collected, to the number of some two thousand souls, of every age and sex, but principally women and children, were led out to a ravine in the neighboring mountains and there butchered like cattle.157

idd 283 YunanAyaklanmasi TemsiliResim 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
A painting that depicts the assault of Greek
soldiers on the common Ottoman people

William St. Clair wrote the eyewitness accounts and descriptions of the officers present during the massacre:

Upwards of ten thousand Turks were put to death. Prisoners who were suspected of having concealed their money were tortured. Their arms and legs were cut off and they were slowly roasted over fires. Pregnant women were cut open, their heads cut off, and dogs’ heads stuck between their legs. From Friday to Sunday the air was filled with the sound of screams… One Greek boasted that he personally killed ninety people. The Jewish colony was systematically tortured… For weeks afterwards starving Turkish children running helplessly about the ruins were being cut down and shot at by exultant Greeks… The wells were poisoned by the bodies that had been thrown in.158

The Greek insurgency that the British deep state instigated to further her own interests didn’t benefit the Greeks, either. After an independent Greek state was founded, a reverse migration – one from Greece to the Ottoman territories – began and 60,000 people left Greece between 1834-36, and many chose the Island of Crete, which was then ruled by the Khedive of Egypt, Mehmed Ali Pasha (aka Muhammad Ali of Egypt).

The Truth behind the Greek Uprising

The main motive behind the Greek uprising was driving Turks out of Europe. Indeed, the project that started with these riots continued for another 100 years until it completely put an end to the 500-year Turkish presence in the Balkans. As a result, the Muslim population declined significantly. American historian Justin McCarthy estimates that between 1821 and 1922, close to 5.5 million Muslims were driven out of Europe and another 5 million were martyred directly or indirectly as a result of diseases or hunger while fleeing.

Bulgarian Uprising

The British Prime Minister of the time, William Ewart Gladstone, based his full-fledged smear campaign against the Ottoman Empire and the Turks on the developments that took place in what is now modern Bulgaria. Together with The Times, he organized wide-scale anti-Turkish campaigns across London for days, while his book Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East, printed in 200,000 copies, offered grossly overstated accounts of incidents intended to fuel Turkophobia. In truth, he was only using the Bulgarian riots, which had been instigated by the British deep state in the first place, to support the black propaganda campaign he was going to launch against the Ottoman Empire.

The Bulgarian uprising was only one in a series of insurgencies started with the provocation of the British deep state as the Ottoman Empire entered its era of decline. Strangely, after centuries of peaceful co-existence on Ottoman lands, minority groups suddenly began to turn against the Empire. However, a closer look reveals the origin of these riots and sedition to be the spies, soldiers, officers, and ambassadors of the British deep state. Rebels in these minorities were personally armed by the British deep state, encouraged to adopt an anti-Turkish sentiment and rise against the Empire. The uprisings started with horrible incidents where hundreds, and in some cases, thousands, of Muslim Turks were martyred. When the Ottoman army offered the necessary response, the provocateurs of the British deep state started smear campaigns along with shouts of ‘murderous, genocidal Turks’. This was the main method of the British deep state when it wished to incite riots and conflicts within the Ottoman Empire.

Historian author Süleyman Kocabaş wrote about the British deep state’s sedition aimed at causing a Bulgarian insurgency:

Britain repeated its actions at Greek insurgency to incite Bulgarian riots. Britain, which in the past had opposed Slav uprisings to maintain Ottoman’s territorial integrity, started to defend Bulgarians in 1870s for the so-called purpose of saving them from the Russian influence. It allowed [Panslavists] to set up committees in London, allowed these groups to provoke gang attacks against Turks and objected to Turks’ prohibition of those violent gangs.159

These British-deep-state-backed riots brought Ottoman communities, which had co-existed in peace for centuries, into conflict with each other. Unsurprisingly, the ensuing political circumstances served only the British deep state interests. Once again for its sake, millions of Muslims, Christians, Jews, Turks, Bulgarians, Armenians, Greeks, Bosnians, Arabs, Circassians and Albanian civilians – women, children or elderly – were slaughtered indiscriminately.

The Bulgarian casualty during the uprising was 1,400 according to official Ottoman reports. Some 1,000 Muslim Ottoman citizens were slaughtered during the same time. However, the European media was quick to inflate the deaths, citing it as high as 200,000. However, today even the Bulgarian authorities’ claim is 30,000. The reports prepared by neutral Belgium authorities on the other hand, put the number at 4,500. Needless to say, civilians lost their lives and this is far more important than any debate over numbers. The important point is that the British deep state once again caused the loss of innocent lives. Having said that, the surprising gap in numbers is another sign of British deep state’s involvement. It is a known fact that the British deep state usually overinflates numbers when its wishes to create an uproar.

One of the main reasons behind the Bulgarian uprising was the desire to set the stage for the coup of 1876 that marked the beginning of the end for the Empire. Only one and one-half months after the Bulgarian uprising, a pro-British group staged a coup, martyred Sultan Abdülaziz Khan, declared Murat V insane, and brought Abdul Hamid II to the throne by force. All these developments took place in line with the British deep state plans. Subsequently, the British deep state put pressure on Abdul Hamid II and convinced him to act in line with its demands. Interestingly, the anti-Turkish remarks of the British Prime Minister Gladstone suddenly stopped after Abdul Hamid II ascended to the throne.

The April Uprising has been the main factor behind the incidents that culminated in the coup. From April 20, 1876, when the uprising started, right until August 31, when Abdul Hamid II was made the Sultan, the British deep state unleashed a relentless campaign of hatred on Turks. Mysteriously, many circles that accused Turks of carrying out non-existent massacres at the time kept strangely quiet in the face of very real British deep state massacres in Africa (Zulus), Australia (Aborigines), the US (Indians), and the Far East (Indians and Chinese), despite the clear evidence.

idd 286 BulgarAyaklanmasi 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
Bulgarian rebels in the Ottoman Empire
in 1800s. The banner in the back
represents the Bulgarian rebels.

Yemen Uprising

The first serious military confrontation between Britain and the Ottoman Empire took place when the British deep state bought a few greedy sheikhs in order to gain a foothold in the city of Aden, Yemen, an important and valuable Ottoman province. Seeking to further solidify its presence, the British deep state began to search for a reliable fortress in northeast Yemen. Historian Süleyman Kocabaş describes the furtive steps that led to the invasion of Yemen:

After Britain entered Aden, it continued to advance in the northeast direction and resorted to all imaginable methods to achieve its goal of seizing the fertile lands ahead. They wore Arab clothes, spoke Arabic, deceived Arabs with promises of independence; all for the sake of interests of their island.160

This was the reason behind the notorious Yemen uprisings that took place while it was under Ottoman rule. The Empire dispatched corps and even small armies to suppress the riots, but despite suffering massive casualties, it lost Yemen. Once again, a few sheikhs, who viewed their personal interests over those of their country, preferred to be pawns of the British deep state. Their horrible betrayal caused the martyrdom of thousands of people.

Developments in North Africa

In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire – a strong naval force – conquered North Africa. The Empire reached the coast of Italy in the north, controlled the entire Eastern Mediterranean and seized Egypt and Morocco in the south. In other words, the Mediterranean became a Turkish lake. The colonial powers of France, Spain, Britain and Holland had to pass the Atlantic Ocean to reach South and West Africa.

Once again, Britain wasn’t ready to accept the situation. To the leaders of the British deep state, the lands that had to be under British control were controlled by a Muslim empire. Due to their deep-seated hostility towards Islam and the Turks, this wasn’t something they could accept. As a result, over the course of the 18th century, the British deep state severed Muslim lands in Africa from the Ottoman Empire, one by one, and it used usual tactics and provocation methods in the process.


The relations of the British deep state with Morocco started in the 16th century. Just as with the Ottoman Empire, Queen Elizabeth I of England managed to get trading privileges from the Moroccan Emperor and started trade in the region on behalf of England. The English Barbary Company, with the charter granted by the Queen, purchased a part of the annual Moroccan sugar produce in exchange for English weapon and cloth. It must be remembered that the Turkey Company operated in a similar fashion and conducted business with the Ottomans for 300 years as a privileged monopoly.

In the early 20th century, the British deep state covertly instigated two incidents in Morocco, in 1906 and 1911, known as the Moroccan Crises. Using the power struggle in the country as a pretense, France deployed its troops to the country. Germany didn’t want to be left out and sent its navy to the region. As a result, Germany and the British-France alliance came close to war twice. These two crises are usually seen as substantial contributing factors to WWI.

idd 291 PantherGambotu AlmanlarAgadir 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
The gunboat SMS Panther that the Germans sent to Agadir, causing a crisis
idd en 313 Cebelitarik 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
The gunboat SMS Panther that the Germans sent to Agadir, causing a crisis

The truth is, all of those were ‘planned’ developments. This way, Britain was able to make France more dependent on her and managed to turn British public against Germany. All these developments sped up the start of WWI, which had been planned and orchestrated by the British deep state. Furthermore, as the rivals of Britain were spending time in Morocco, Britain was busy taking Egypt under its control. In the end, thousands of Moroccan Muslims that were martyred in the crises had to pay the price of this power game of the British deep state.

The crises resulted in France establishing a full protectorate over Morocco in 1912, and for the next forty years.

It was crucial for Britain that Morocco was under the control of one of her allies, because it allowed the British deep state to control one side of the Gibraltar Strait, the gate to Mediterranean.

British-supported Conflicts in Western Sahara

Morocco has been at war with the separatist Polisario Front in Western Sahara for the last thirty years. Britain, on the other hand, has been covertly supplying weapons to both sides in the conflict. In Western Sahara, where only 500,000 people live, there is a Moroccan army of 100,000 people. Britain sells armored vehicles, sniper rifles, land-to-land missiles, missile launchers and howitzers to Morocco for use in this region. In the past two years, it has delivered light weapons worth more than $1 billion. Due to the competition between Algeria and Morocco, Algeria also supports and supplies weapons to the separatist movements in Western Sahara. Recently, Morocco has signed a new deal with the US for 150 tanks.

The British deep state certainly doesn’t want peace in the region. Not only does the UN not recognize the independence of Western Sahara, but it also doesn’t recognize the sovereignty of Morocco, over which the region has been embroiled in war for a long time. As one would expect, this was a part of the British deep state plans concocted 100 years ago to dismember the Ottoman Empire. The plan seems to work without a problem.


In the 1850s, Tunisia was being ruled by Ottoman-appointed ‘Beys’. However, it later initiated a so-called ‘modernization’ movement, which was in truth an imperialist policy of the British deep state in disguise, designed to paralyze countries economically, socially and culturally. As a result, Tunisia paid huge sums to Britain for her defense expenses and the rest followed, as it always does whenever the British deep state is involved. Economically crippled, the country became more dependent on Britain, borrowed more money and inevitably bankrupted. Due to astronomical interest rates, the Tunisian government, which had borrowed only 30 million Francs, had to pay it back after a short while with interest in the amount of 70 million Francs. In fact, the Turkish people are very familiar with this interest trap. It was among the reasons for the collapse of the Empire, not to mention this trap was a project of the British deep state. A similar method was being employed for Egypt almost simultaneously, just as in India in the past.

After receiving its first loan in 1863, the Tunisian government had to introduce new taxes the following year. People, who were already very poor, couldn’t endure the pressure and rebelled in 1864. Although a government clampdown worked, new debts brought new taxes, which caused new riots. This vicious cycle continued until Tunisia became a French protectorate.

Tunisia, already with poor agricultural production, was forced to export most of its produce to pay back her debts, which caused famine and cholera. 10,000 Tunisians lost their lives as a result.

idd 294 ArapIsyani 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
Arab riots were one of the driving forces behind the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

When the state bankrupted, an institution similar to the Ottoman Public Debt Administration was set up, and the Tunisian economy was entrusted to the British and French. Ultimately, Tunisia was left to France in exchange for Cyprus, seized without a military effort. This was neither the first nor the last deal in which the British deep state was sharing the Ottoman lands.

Only 18 years after the first foreign debt was acquired, France, with its 36,000 troops, invaded Tunisia in 1881. When the Bey of Tunisia Muhammad III as-Sadiq understood that he wouldn’t be able to fight back, he signed a treaty that made Tunisia a French protectorate.

From that date until 1956, when they gained their independence under the leadership of Habib Bourguiba, Tunisia was embroiled in constant conflicts, civil wars and terror. Occupation by Nazis was followed by Allied victory. The French applied strict measures to suppress Tunisian nationalism, and during this time, tens of thousands of Muslims were martyred by the French.

In those years, Britain had the sole say in the distribution of power in the world. No country could invade a place unless permitted by Britain. As previously explained, France was able to capture regions only in line with the plans of the British deep state. This allowed Britain to control vast lands through its allies and keep in check an important power like France.

Algeria was another country that suffered from similar endeavors of the British deep state.


For 300 years, Algeria was the principal center of Ottoman power in the Maghreb. Governors appointed by the Ottoman Sultan ran the province until France invaded it in 1827, using a petty argument with the French Consul as an excuse. When a meeting between Algeria’s governor Hussein Dey and the French Consul got heated, the dey struck the Consul three times with his hand fan. French immediately made this incident an excuse for invasion, after which Hussein Dey was exiled.

Now a French colony, the educational system of the country was changed, local administrators were stripped of their powers and social order came to a breaking point. Rich lands of Muslims were taken from them and handed over to French colonialists. Algeria became the administration center of the French colonies in Africa. Throughout the years, Muslims of North Africa witnessed the horrible face of European imperialism as Muslims were martyred en masse. French rule brought nothing but death to Muslims of Algeria. 175,000 Algerians fought for France during WWI, but 40,000 of them never returned. During the Algerian War of Independence, 1,000,000 Muslims lost their lives, while 3,000,000 were imprisoned in camps.

However, even after the declaration of independence, the violence in Algeria didn’t end. On the contrary, the country plunged into a bloody civil war at the end of the 20th century, and following a coup against the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in 1991, 150,000 Muslims were martyred at the hands of other Muslims. The Armed Islamic Group of Algeria (GIA), founded in 1993, began to martyr Algerians of all backgrounds, including FIS-linked Muslims. The British deep state was once again behind GIA, which had a London-based magazine named Al-Ansar, intended to recruit Muslims that could be made guerillas. Britain allowed these activities, lent its support at times, and sometimes helped prepare the setting for such activities.

The Favorite Arms Market of the British Deep State: Africa
With the world’s biggest natural gas reserves and its large fertile lands, Algeria is a blessed country. However, due to the ongoing conflict, a major portion of its revenues is spent on weapons. So much so, Algeria alone accounts for 30% of Africa’s arms import, followed by Morocco with 26%. Between 2011 and 2015, Algeria bought 4 warships, 190 tanks, 42 helicopters, 14 aircrafts and 2 submarines. And Morocco seems to be the only intended target of this military preparation.

In truth, the British deep state is once again involved, carrying out sinister plans as always, which usually target Muslims. As a result of these plots, Muslims are brought to a position where they spend their valuable resources on fighting each other. And once again, the only party that truly benefits from the situation is Britain. The British deep state continues today its efforts to exploit Africa, by using its resources and creating conflicts.


The most important reason leading to Egypt being transferred to British rule was the foreign debt that Midhat Pasha endorsed during his first term as the grand vizier. In the next 15 years, the economy collapsed and Britain invaded Egypt exactly as planned by the British deep state.

Egypt used loans with heavy penalties to build the Suez Canal in 1869 with the French. Six years later, unable to pay the interest, it had to transfer its share in the Canal to the British. Three years later, auditors of the creditors, France and Britain, began to assume positions in the Egyptian government. In a matter of nine years, the British seized the control of Egypt and then physically invaded the country four years later.

idd 297 MisirIsyani 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
Occupation of Egypt by the
British in 1882
idd en 319 MisirIsgaliSonrasi 1 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
Egypt after it was invaded by Britain in 1882.
idd en 319 MisirIsgaliSonrasi 2 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
idd en 319 MisirIsgaliSonrasi 3 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
The pictures below show Europeans drinking wine out of historical artifacts.
idd 297 MisirIsyani 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
Occupation of Egypt by the
British in 1882

The events that led up to the invasion of Egypt weren’t completely different from what we saw in other Ottoman territories. Instigated by the British deep state, anti-Christian riots began in Alexandria, during which British and French navy ships were conveniently present in the harbor of Alexandria. The British used the riots as an excuse to attack the city, and then proceeded to a full-scale invasion of Egypt, and made it a de facto protectorate, which became official in 1914. The British deep state then instigated a similar insurgency in Sudan, which at the time was a part of Egypt. The Egyptian army under the command of British General Herbert Kitchener suppressed the riot, which led Sudan to be effectively administered as a British colony. Sudan remained so until 1956.

idd en 320 EskiIstanbul 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire idd 299 TurkAleyhtari BayragaSAygisizlik 8. British Deep State Incites Riots across the Empire
The people of the Ottoman Empire were strong and coated with patriotic and spiritual values. Knowing this, the British deep state played an insidious game and made the Ottomans suffer a moral decline by utilizing Darwinist propaganda. An example of black propaganda against the Ottoman Empire. Pictures showing the Ottoman flag trampled under feet after the Balkan War.


157. Justin McCarthy, The Ottoman Turks: An Introductory History to 1923, p. 338

158. Justin McCarthy; William St. Clair. That Greece Might Still Be Free The Philhellenes in the War of Independence, London: Oxford University Press, 1972, p. 43

159. Süleyman Kocabaş, Osmanlı İsyanlarında Yabancı Parmağı, pp. 81-82

160. Süleyman Kocabaş, Osmanlı İsyanlarında Yabancı Parmağı, pp. 91-92

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